Teacher Tenure - Requirements for earning nonprobationary status

Teacher Tenure - Requirements for earning nonprobationary status

May 2014

R = Teacher must return to begin the next school year or sign a contract committing to service in the next school year. Unless otherwise noted, all years listed as required for nonprobationary status are academic years.

Requirements for earning nonprobationary status
Alabama 3 + R
Alaska 3 + R
and an evaluation under the district's evaluation system stating that the teacher's performance meets the district performance standards
Arizona 3 + R

Return to probationary status:
A continuing teacher designated in the lowest performance classification for the current school year becomes a probationary teacher for the subsequent school year and remains a probationary teacher until the performance is designated in either of the two highest performance classifications.
Arkansas 3 + R
California 2 + R
for employees whose probationary period commenced during the 1983-84 fiscal year or any fiscal year thereafter
Colorado 3
with 3 consecutive years of demonstrated effectiveness

Return to probationary status:
A nonprobationary teacher becomes probationary again after 2 consecutive years of demonstrated ineffectiveness.
Connecticut Effective July 1, 2014:
40 months
Superintendents must consider effective practice, as informed by performance evaluations, in granting tenure.

Delaware Hired after the 2009/2010 school year:
3 + at least 2 years of “satisfactory” ratings in the “student improvement” component of the teacher appraisal process within a 3-year period

Hired prior to the 2009/2010 school year:
3 years, at least 2 of which were in the employ of the terminating board
District of Columbia Not addressed in statute.
Florida Hired prior to 7/1/2011:
3 + R

Hired after 7/1/2011:
1 + R
After successful completion of 1-year probationary contract, a teacher is placed on annual contract. District board may choose not to award an annual contract without cause. An annual contract may be awarded only if the employee has NOT received:
  • two consecutive “unsatisfactory” ratings on annual performance evaluations 
  • two “unsatisfactory” ratings on annual performance evaluations in a 3-year period 
  • three consecutive “needs improvement” ratings on annual performance evaluations
  • a combination of “needs Improvement” and “unsatisfactory” ratings
Because all teachers are awarded an annual contract regardless of probationary status, Florida has essentially eliminated tenure.
Georgia 3 + R
Hawaii 1
Idaho 3 + R

Return to probationary status:
When the work of a category 3 employee is found to be unsatisfactory, the board establishes a period of probation not less than eight weeks. After the probationary period, the board may retain, immediately discharge, discharge on termination of the current contract, or reemploy at the end of the current contract. The probation period does not affect renewable contract status.
Illinois Hired prior to the implementation date of the Performance Evaluation Reform Act (PERA):
4 + R

Hired on or after the implementation date of the Performance Evaluation Reform Act:
4 consecutive school terms of service in which the teacher receives overall annual evaluation ratings of at least “proficient” in the last school term and at least “proficient” in either the second or third school term
3 consecutive school terms of service in which the teacher receives three overall annual evaluations of “excellent”
2 consecutive school terms of service in which the teacher receives two overall annual evaluations of “excellent” service, but only if the teacher previously attained contractual continued service in a different school district or program in the state, voluntarily departed or was honorably dismissed from that school district or program in the school term immediately prior to the teacher's first school term of service applicable to the attainment of contractual continued service, and received, in his or her two most recent overall annual or biennial evaluations from the prior school district or program, ratings of at least “proficient,” with both ratings occurring after the school district's or program's PERA implementation date.

Indiana Under contract prior to 7/2012 + R

After 6/30/2011, a probationary teacher is a teacher who is under contract, but was not under any contract prior to 7/2012, and has not received a rating or has been rated "ineffective" and has not received three ratings in a 5-year period of "effective" or "highly effective." 

A professional teacher is a teacher who receives a rating of "effective" or "highly effective" or a combination of both for at least 3 years in a 5-year or shorter period.

Under contract prior to 7/2011:
2 + R for semi-permanent teachers
5 + R for permanent teachers

Return to probationary status;
A professional teacher with a rating of "ineffective" is considered probationary, but is not subject to the cancellation if his or her contract unless the teacher receives another "ineffective" rating the following year or the contract cancellation is due to reduction in force or the teacher receives two consecutive "improvement necessary" ratings.
Iowa 3
Board may extend the probationary period for an additional year with the consent of the teacher.
Kansas 3 + R

Kentucky 4 + R
Louisiana For teachers who acquired tenure prior to September 1, 2012:

Effective July 1, 2012:
“Highly effective” rating for 5 years in a 6-year period

Return to probationary status:
A teacher rated “ineffective” loses tenure. The teacher may reacquire tenure if the “ineffective” rating is reversed pursuant to the grievance procedure or if the teacher receives a rating of “highly effective” for 5 years in a 6-year period.
Maine 3
Maryland 3
Massachusetts 3

The district superintendent, with the principal's recommendation, can award professional teacher status to any teacher who has served not less than 1 year in the principal's building.
Michigan 5+ rated as effective or highly effective on his/her 3 most recent annual performance evaluations
4+ rated as highly effective on 3 consecutive annual performance evaluations
4 for a teacher under contract but not on continuing tenure as of 7/19/11
Minnesota 3
Mississippi 2 in Mississippi district and 1 + in current district
Missouri 5 + R
Montana 3 + R
Nebraska 3
Nevada 3
with “satisfactory” on performance evaluations for 2 consecutive years + receive offer for year 4

Return to probationary status:
A post-probationary teacher whose performance is rated below average for two consecutive years is returned to probationary status.
New Hampshire 5 consecutive years in any district in the state and has 3 consecutive years in current district

Prior to 07/1/2011:
3 consecutive years in any district in the state and has 2 consecutive years in current district
New Jersey For teachers hired prior to 8/6/2012:
3 + R

Beginning in the 2012-13 school year:
4 + R
In addition, a teacher must complete a district mentorship program during the initial year of employment and receive a rating of "effective" or "highly effective" in 2 annual summative evaluations within the first 3 years of employment after the initial year of employment.
New Mexico 3

New York 3
North Carolina After August 1, 2013, career status is phased out over a 5-year period and all teachers are employed on contract. Contracts or contract renewals for teachers employed three or more years may be for one, two, or four school years. The superintendent may recommend a teacher for a contract term of longer than one year only if the teacher has shown effectiveness as demonstrated by proficiency on the teacher evaluation instrument. Local boards have the option to approve the superintendent's recommendation, to not approve the recommendation, or to offer a teacher a renewed contract for a term different from that recommended by the superintendent.
North Dakota Not specified
Ohio 3
Oklahoma For teachers employed prior to full implementation of Oklahoma Teacher and Leader Effectiveness Evaluation System (TLE):

For teachers first employed after full implementation of TLE either:
3 and has rated “superior” for at least 2 of the 3 years, with no rating below “effective;” or
4 and has averaged a rating of at least “effective,” with at least an “effective” rating for the last 2 years; or
4 with principal petition and superintendent and school board approval.
Oregon 3 + R
Pennsylvania Hired prior to 06/30/96:

Hired on or after 06/30/96:
Rhode Island 3 with 3 ratings of "effective" or higher on the state approved local educator evaluation system; or

3 with at least one rating of "developing" or higher on the state approved local educator evaluation system with submission of proof of completion of specified professional development based on evaluation results for each "developing" or "ineffective" rating.
South Carolina 2

All teachers are initially contracted with a 3-year induction contract period. At the end of each year of the 3-year induction period, the district may employ the teacher under another induction contract, an annual contract, or may terminate his or her employment. After successfully completing an induction contract period, not to exceed three years, an annual contract period, not to exceed four years, and an evaluation process a teacher is eligible for employment at the continuing contract level. 
South Dakota 3 + R
Tennessee 5 or not less than 45 months within a 7-year period as probationary teacher, the last two as a regular teacher (not interim) and evaluations demonstrating “above expectations” or “significantly above expectations” during the last two years of probation+ R. Board must grant tenure.

Return to probationary status:
Tenured teachers who have two consecutive years of overall performance “below expectations” or “significantly below expectations” may lose tenure status until they have completed two consecutive years of “above” or “significantly above” expectations.

For teachers acquiring tenure after 7/15/2011:
Teachers with tenure who resign and come back must serve 2-year probationary period and demonstrate effective performance prior to being granted tenure.
Texas 3
Utah 3 (at least part-time basis)

A school district may extend the provisional status of an employee up to an additional 2 consecutive years in accordance with written policy adopted by the district's school board that specifies the circumstances under which an employee's provisional status may be extended.

Teachers who hold competency-based licenses are not eligible for career status.
Vermont 2
Virginia At least 3 years, or, at the discretion of the board, up to 5 years
Washington 3, except that an employee who receives an evaluation rating below level 2 on the four-level rating system during the third year of employment remains subject to nonrenewal until he or she receives a level 2 rating.

The superintendent may make a determination to remove an employee from provisional status if he or she has received one of the top two evaluation ratings during the second year of employment.

West Virginia 3 + R
Wisconsin 3 + R

Wyoming 3 + R and satisfactory performance evaluations
Continuing contract status in 1 district and without lapse of time has taught 2 consecutive years + R

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